Weekly Computer Knowledge Capsule 3

Weekly Computer Knowledge Capsule 3

Dear Mockbankers

In this article you will get, information about different topics of Computer knowledge in the form of Weekly Computer knowledge Capsule.

Computer knowledge section has become an essential section of majority of recruitment examination conducted in India. Essentially it checks how much is the candidate keeping up with the knowledge of Computer.

In this article, we are providing the gist of Internet and Related Terms:


  • The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide.
  • It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.
  • The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet.


  • A Website, is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain.
  • A Home page, index page, or main page is a page on a website. A home page usually refers to:
  • The initial or main web page of a website, sometimes called the “front page” (by analogy with newspapers).
  • The web page or local file that automatically loads when a web browser starts or when the browser’s “home” button is pressed; this is also called a “home page”.
  • A Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or by hovering or that is followed automatically


  • A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
  • Some of the famous browsers are Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Bolt, UC Browser and Internet Explorer
  • The Uniform Resource Locator, abbreviated as URL is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource.
  • Downloading means to receive data to a local system from a remote system, or to initiate such a data transfer
  • Uploading refers to the sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as a server or another client with the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the data being transferred.
  • An Internet Protocol address (also known as an IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network.


  • An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message. One or more files can be attached to any email message, and be sent along with it to the recipient.
  • Hotmail was co-founded by an Indian American entrepreneur Sabeer Bhatia along with Jack Smith in July of 1996
  • CC(Carbon Copy) in e–mail indicates those who are to receive a copy of a message addressed primarily to another. The list of CCed recipients is visible to all other recipients of the message.
  • An additional BCC (blind carbon copy) field is available for hidden notification; recipients listed in the BCC field receive a copy of the message, but are not shown on any other recipient’s copy (including other BCC recipients)
  • The Drafts folder retains copies of messages that you have started but are not yet ready to send.


  • Data Communication deals with the transmission of digital data from one device to another. Data is transferred through a pathway called as communication channel which can be physical wire connecting the devices or may be unguided media like laser, microwave etc.
  • A communication channel has a source or transmitter at one side and a designation or receiver at another side of the network.
  • The source of data origination is single but there may be multiple receivers. A communication channel is of 3 types:
  1. Simplex: In this, communication is unidirectional i.e. one of the two devices can transmit the data and the other can only receive the data. For eg. Radio broadcasting, television broadcasting etc.
  2. Half duplex:In this communication is bidirectional. Either of the devices can act as transmitter or receiver but only one device can transmit the data at one time. For eg. Walkie talkie.
  3. Full Duplex: Here also communication is in both directions and both the devices can simultaneously transmit the data. For eg. Telephone conversation.


Different types of network are: LAN, MAN and WAN.

  • A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers and network devices connected together, usually within the same building. By definition, the connections must be high speed and relatively inexpensive (e.g., token ring or Ethernet).
  • A MAN (metropolitan area network) is a larger network that usually spans several buildings in the same city or town.
  • A WAN (wide area network), in comparison to a MAN, is not restricted to a geographical location,although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or country.


  • Modem: Modem stands for Modulator Demodulator. It is used to connect computers for communication via telephone lines.
  • Hub: It works at the Physical layer. It just acts like a connector of several computers i.e. simply connects all the devices on its ports together.
  • Switch: It works at the Data Link Layer. It is used for dividing a network into segments called sub nets.
  • Repeater: It operates at the Physical Layer. It is used to amplify a signal that has lost its original strength so as to enable them to travel long distances.
  • Router: It works at the Network Layer and is used to connect different networks that have different architectures and protocols.
  • Gateway: It operates in all the layers of the network architecture. It can be used to connect two different networks having different architectures, environment and even models.
  • Bridge: They are used two connect two LANs with the same standard but using different types of cables.


  • A Computer Virus is a computer program or code that can replicate itself and spread from one computer system to another system.
  • A computer virus has the capacity to corrupt or to delete data on your computer.
  • Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems.
  • Antivirus Software is used to scan the hard disk to remove the virus from them.
  • Some of the famous anti – viruses available are Avast!, Norton, Avira, Kaspersky, AVG, etc.
  • A person who uses his or her expertise to gain access to other people’s computers to get information illegally or do damage is a Hacker.
  • Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
  • A Spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully represents oneself as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.


  •  Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network.There are two basic categories of network topologies:
  • Physical topologies and Logical topologies.
  • Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation.
  • Logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design.
  • Various types of topologies are:
  1. Bus Topology
  2. Star Topology
  3. Ring Topology
  4. Mesh Topology

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