Verbal Ability: Parajumbles Concept & Questions

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Parajumbles Questions and Concepts for Bank Exams

Dear Candidates

Many of our readers have requested us to publish different questions from English Section. Today we will talk about parajumbles. A topic which is feared by candidates across all banking exams. 

VERBAL ABILITY TOPIC OF THE DAY – Para-jumbles 

Para-jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. The candidate is expected to rearrange the sentences in a  logical order such that they make sense. These questions have the following structure

“Given below are six sentences, ie A, B, C, D, E and F, which have been  presented in a wrong order. Arrange them in order to form a meaningful  paragraph and then answer the questions given below.”

This statement is followed by 5-6 statements in jumbled order.

Contrary to popular belief, you can attain 100 % accuracy in para-jumbles questions if you approach them scientifically. This is how you approach para jumbles questions step by step.

1.Identify Transition words:

Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and connect the sentences logically. Observing the transition words found in a sentence can often give you a clue about the sentence that will come before/after that particular sentence. Given below are some commonly used transition words:

also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all, all in all to sum-up.

Example on how to use transition words:

Check out the following para jumbled question:

A. But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.

B. So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is bum his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.

C. Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.

D. How do you do battle with your enemy?

E. The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case F. With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy.

1. FDEBAC 2. FCABED 3. DEBACF 4. DFEBAC

Solution:

  • Look at the transition word “but” in the first sentence. It signifies that the sentence is expressing an idea contrary to an idea expressed in some previous sentence. Now we need to find that previous sentence. If we further look at the beginning of the first sentence, it says “but in the industrial era…” which suggests that the contrariness is with respect to eras.
  • Looking further, we see that sentence B and C are also starting with statement about eras. But the transition word at the start of C is “now” which expresses present era and hence it cannot chronologically come before any other past era. That is, if information era is the present era, talk about any other era will come before this. So sentence B is the correct sentence to come before the first sentence.
  • Likewise, sentence C is the correct sentence to come after the first sentence (sentence C is continuing the idea). Therefore, we have the link BAC.
  • We see that option 1, 3 and 4 all have the link BAC. Furthermore, all the three options have the link EBAC. Therefore, we only need to arrange D and F. The sentence F states that “The purpose is…to battle with the enemy” and D questions “how do you battle with the enemy?” Therefore, D will come after F.
  • Hence FDEBAC is the correct arrangement.

2 . Identify Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns are he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc. Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc. Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence. Often, this is a good lead to identify a link.

Example on how to use personal pronouns

A. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing.

B. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.

C. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.

D. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual.

E. Work is not intrinsically valued in India.

F. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours.

1. ECADBF      2. EADCFB      3. EADBFC      4. ABFCBE

Solution:

  • Look at the personal pronoun “they” in sentence B: Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. This they must be referring to some people. The reference to some people only comes in sentences A, D, and F. Therefore, one of the sentences will come before sentence B. Let’s see the link AB, DB, andFB;
  • Link AB- Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
  • Link DB- Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
  • Link FB- Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
  • Which of these links makes sense? Only link DB seems coherent. Now, we examine the options with link DB. We see that options 1 and 3 have link DB in them. Also, both the options have link ADBF. Therefore, ADBF is a link. Now we only need to place sentences E and C. We can do that by reading the sentences in the order given in options 1 and 3.
  • Option 1: Link ECADBF- Work is not intrinsically valued in India. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours.
  • Option 3: Link EADBFC- Work is not intrinsically valued in India. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.
  • Both the options seem plausible. We have to determine which one of the links EC and EA is better. Here is the thumb rule when trying to determine plausibility of a link
  • THE FLOW OF AUTHORS IDEA SHOULD BE COMPLETELY LOGICAL; THE AUTHOR DOES NOT JUMP FROM ONE IDEA TO OTHER SUDDENLY.
  • In link EC, sentence E is talking about work not being valued whereas sentence C is talking about people being clumsy, indifferent, inconsiderate etc. Sentence C is NOT talking about value of work. It is talking about people’s behavior. Therefore, EC cannot be a logical flow.
  • In link EA, sentence E is talking about work not being valued and sentence A is talking about people sitting idle. This certainly says that people do not value work. Therefore, EA is the correct link. Hence, option 3 is correct.

3. Demonstrative Pronoun 

The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase. Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.

Example:

A. Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint.

B. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.

C. He acknowledges too “in fact he returns to the point often ” that best translators of poetry always fail at some level.

D. Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings.

E. In terms of the gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses and street-cleaners.

1. EACDB      2. ADEBC      3. EACBD      4. DCEAB

Solution:

  • Again an easy one. Notice the demonstrative pronoun “this” in sentence A: Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint. Also note that sentence A is introducing Michael Hofman (Michael Hofman, a poet and translator,…) and will thereby come before every sentence containing the personal pronoun he or him. So which sorry fact is sentence A referring to? It can only be the fact found in sentence E. Also, other sentences contain “he” or “him”.
  • Therefore, EA is a link. Link EA is contained in option 1, 3 and 4. But in 4, sentence D is coming before sentence A, and this cannot happen because sentence A should be before any other sentence referring to Hofman as sentence A is introducing Hofman. Therefore, we are left with options 1 and 3. The difference between options 1 and 3 is the order of sentence Dand B. Let’s examine the link DB:
  • Option 1: Link DB- Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
  • Does this sound like a plausible flow? Certainly NOT. Therefore, link DB is incorrect and the correct answer is option 3.

4. Combining it with logic

Sometimes using logic to decide the order of sentences can yield high dividends. In the previous example, we had used logic to determine that sentence A would come before any other sentence referring Hofman. Keep your eyes open for clues such as these

Example:

A. The situations in which violence occurs and the nature of that violence tends to be clearly defined at least in theory, as in the proverbial Irishman’s question: “Is this a private fight or can anyone join in?”

B. So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable.

C. Probably the only uncontrolled applications of force are those of social superiors to social inferiors and even here there are probably some rules.

D. However binding the obligation to kill, members of feuding families engaged in mutual massacre will be genuinely appalled if by some mischance a bystander or outsider is killed.

1. DABC      2. ACDB      3. CBAD      4. DBAC

Solution:

  • The clue to this question came to me from the word “calculable” in sentence B: So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable. How does something become “calculable”? Then I noticed sentence A and the phrase “clearly defined in theory…” Something becomes calculable when it is clearly defined in theory. No other sentence could give answers to “calculable”. Therefore, the link AB was clearly marked. The link AB was present in option 1 only. Easy, no?
  • Notice that I have been going to the option again and again to eliminate one or two options. Form this habit sedulously. It will pay you rich dividends.


5.  Acronym Approach

Full form vs. short form:

In Parajumbles we encounter full and short names or acronyms of some term or institution.

Ex-World Trade Organization – WTO

Dr. Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh

Karl Marx – Marx

President George W. Bush – President bush or the president

The rule is that if both full form as well as short form is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing short form.

6. Time Sequence Approach

Either dates or time sequence indicating words: Be aware of the time indication either by giving years – or by using time indicating words. Arrange the sentences using their proper time sequence. Here are a few time sequence indicating words –Before after later when.

7. Theory Approach

If any sentence is working as an example – place it after the sentence for which it is working as an example, not necessarily just after – because one has to explain the idea, it is hypothesis/ theory. It should not be before the idea that it explains.

8. Articles Approach
Articles can be divided into two categories –

1. Definite (the) and

2. Indefinite (a and an).

When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence. If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.

9. Noun, Pronoun and Adjective (NPA) Approach
– Whenever pronoun comes – it will come in the immediate sentence containing the respective noun.

i. e. A sequence can be like this

Noun

Pronoun

Pronoun

Pronoun

or like this

Noun Pronoun

………….. no pronoun

Noun

Pronoun

i.e. the pronoun sequence will continue till it is halted by a break (i.e. a sentence containing no pronoun) then if necessary it will start with the noun again. We can’t write pronoun after a break. It is not a correct form of writing.

10. Opening – Closing Sentence (OCS) Approach
Supported or free, general or need previous explanation:

OCS is particularly useful in 4 sentence parajumble (where opening sentence is not given)

Let’s see the characteristics of an opening sentence

It will introduce an idea in the first hand.

In most of the cases it will use indefinite article a/an. i.e. if both definite and indefinite articles are used for the same noun then the sentence containing noun with indefinite article a/an will come first (may be opening sentence).

The sentence can stand alone

It will not have pronouns (exception: if respective noun is not mentioned anywhere). It will not have contrast words/or words indicating continuation/or words like – hence , therefore, so- etc.

11. Key Words Approach – KWA

Some words will be repeated in two consecutive sentences.:

In most of the cases we repeat some important words of one sentence in the sentence that follows.

Hence if you are seeing any important (not like he, she, that, is, are type) then chances are that these two sentences will be consecutive. Remember it gives you an idea that which sentences can be consecutive for example 23 or 32 but for exact order you have to look for some other clue or meaning.

12. Structure Approach – SA

Link sentences logically i.e.:

Link the sentences logically i.e. see what is the role played by a specific sentence

Premise

Conclusion

Support

Example

Continuation

and then search for some proper sentence that should come before or the one which will follow.

13.  Indicating Words Approach – IWA
Take care of words that indicate something helpful to decide sequence.:

Some words indicates some specific nature of sentences that will come before or that will follow.

Look for the words like

But

So

Therefore

And

However

think what they are indicating.

 

Use the above approaches to find answers to the following questions.

Question: Given below are six sentences, i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, which have been  presented in a wrong order. Arrange them in order to form a meaningful  paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

(A) Some others, like the European nations, have a low birth rate and a low death rate.

(B) Many others have a high birth rate with a low death rate.

(C) Different countries show different patterns of growth.

(D) Some have a high birth rate and still have a high death rate.

(E) Compared to this in Europe the growth rate is low.

(F) The developing countries show the most rapid growth rate.

Question 1: Which will be the LAST sentence in the Para?

Options: A B C D E
Question 2: Which will be the FIRST sentence in the Para?

Options: E D C B A

Question 3 :Which will come at SECOND place in the para?

Options: A B C D E

Question 4: Which sentence will come at FIFTH place in the Para?

Options: F D B A C

Question 5: Which will be the THIRD sentence in the Para?

Options: B A D F E

Feel free to ask us any questions in the comments section below and we will be more than happy to answer them!

Please answer your solutions. We will post the answers tomorrow.

UPDATE- ANSWERS

The Correct order is :- C D A B F E

1. E
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. B

  • rohit agarwal

    thanks a lot sir,
    really wonderful article.
    sir, ‘ request u to please publish an article on how to tackle logical reasoning question in reasoning portion. like assumption, cause effet, inference etc.
    thanks in advance.

    • Vaibhav

      Hi Rohit

      Thanks for your kind words. We will post an article on logical reasoning soon.

      • rohit agarwal

        thanks a lot sir,
        waiting eagerly for the article….

  • Pankaj rajan

    Thank you for promptly responce for my request regarding parajumble questions. its very helpful article.
    Please give some advice how to approach cloze test questions in paragraph.

    • Vaibhav

      Hi pankaj

      hope you found the article productive. We will soon post a cloze test tips and tricks article. Please keep checking with us

  • abhi

    1.e 2.c 3.b 4.a 5.d

    • Vaibhav

      Hi Abhi
      We will soon update the answers. Keep checking

  • neha

    thanks a lot….

    • Vaibhav

      Your welcome neha

  • MILIND

    THANKS.

  • Ranjana

    Thanx ….it helped alot.

    • Vaibhav

      Hi Ranjana
      Your welcome

  • Geetha K

    score is 3/5

    • Vaibhav

      geetha you need to work a little more

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  • Neelima

    Thanks
    It really helped

    • samhita

      You are welcome, Neelima. We are glad that we are able to help you out.

  • divya

    Thanks sir
    It’s really helpfull.

    • Vaibhav

      Your welcome Divya

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  • mishika

    Thanks alot sir for such a helpful article it helped me alot to recall all the points thank u so much good work keep doing it and i also want reasoning help in assumpton conclusion, means logical reasoning do that as early as possible regards……:) 🙂

  • nandu

    for the last question why cant we get the pattern :CFEDBA as answer
    could you plz give me a proper answer

  • Ashish

    Thanks for the article..
    Really solved my confusion…
    Kindly Plz help me to provide tips about LIC AAO GA….

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  • moumita paul

    thanks for this article