IAS Exam Preparation Indian Polity Section via Infographics
You will be tested by UPSC on Questions relating to the Constitution and its features.
Indian Polity for Civil Services Exam 2016
The Constitution of India is a unique constitution. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of the world. It provides for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility with rigidity. The salient features of the Constitution of India are :
Written and Detailed Constitution
- The Constitution is a wholly written document which incorporates the constitutional law of India.
- It took the Assembly 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to write and enact the Constitution.
- Indian Constitution is a very detailed constitution.
- It consists of 395 Articles divided into 22 Parts with 12 Schedules and 94 constitutional amendments.
- It is a constitution of both the Centre and states of Indian Union It are indeed much bigger than the US Constitution which has only 7 Articles and the French Constitution with its 89 Articles.
Self Made and Enacted Constitution
- Indian Constitution is a constitution made by the people of India acting through their duly elected and representative body—the Constituent Assembly that was organised in December 1946.
- Its first session was held on 9th December, 1946. It passed the Objectives Resolution on 22 January, 1947.
- Thereafter, it initiated the process of constitution-making in the right earnest and was in a position to finally pass and adopt the constitution on 26th November, 1949.
- The constitution became fully operational with effect from 26th January 1950.
- We celebrate this day as our Republic Day.
- The Constitution of India is thus a self-made and duly enacted constitution.
Preamble of the Constitution
- The Preamble to the Constitution of India is a well drafted document which states the philosophy of the constitution.
- It declares India to be a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and a welfare state committed to secure justice, liberty and equality for the people and for promoting fraternity, dignity the individual, and unity and integrity of the nation.
- The Preamble is the key to the constitution.
- It states in nutshell the nature of Indian state and the objectives it is committed to secure for the people.
India is a Democratic Socialist State
- It was only in 1976 that the Preamble was amended to include the term ‘Socialism’.
- It is now regarded as a prime feature of Indian state. India is committed to secure social, economic and political justice for its entire people by ending all forms of exploitation and by securing equitable distribution of income, resources and wealth.
- This is to be secured by peaceful, constitutional and democratic means.
India is a Secular State
- India gives special status to no religion. There is no such thing as a state religion of India.
- This makes it different from theocratic states like the Islamic Republic of Pakistan or other Islamic countries. Further, Indian secularism guarantees equal freedom to all religions.
- The Constitution grants the Right to Religious Freedom to all the citizens.
India is a Democratic State
- The Constitution of India provides for a democratic system. The authority of the government rests upon the sovereignty of the people.
- The people enjoy equal political rights.
- On the basis of these rights, the people freely participate in the process of politics. They elect their government.
- Free fair and regular elections are held for electing governments. For all its activities, the government of India is responsible before the people.
- The people can change their government through elections.
- No government can remain in power which does not enjoy the confidence of the people. India is world’s largest working democracy.
India is a Republic
- The Preamble declares India to be a Republic.
- India is not ruled by a monarch or a nominated head of state. India has an elected head of state (President of India) who wields power for a fixed term of 5 years.
- After every 5 years, the people of India indirectly elect their President.
Parliamentary Form of Government
- The parliamentary system means that the ministers get their legitimacy from a Legislature body that is the Parliament of India.
- Our parliament has two houses viz. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. So, it’s called bicameral parliament.
- Part V of the Constitution trifurcates the State into three equal constituents, the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary.
- The composition of the Legislature, the Parliament of India, is of members elected by adult suffrage in the case of the Lok Sabha, and indirectly by the State Legislatures in case of Rajya Sabha.
IAS Exam Preparation Quiz: Constitution
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References: Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
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