In the present General Knowledge Capsule, we will discuss the last 9 states out of 29 states in India.
General Knowledge Capsule 4 : States of India
The first 20 states have been covered in the following :-
Capital – Chandigarh
Districts – 22
Literacy – 75.84 %
- Punjab is a well-known state in India that is located at the northwest end of the country. This state has gained recognition as the ‘land of five rivers’. The five rivers are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum.
- Archaeological excavations performed during historical times have brought to light the fact that the cities of this state were a major part of the Harappa and Mohenjodaro, now a part of Pakistan. The Mahabharata also contained rich information about the land and people of the state.
- The major portion of the state is situated in an alluvial and fertile plain. The fact that there are many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system augurs well for the agricultural sector. However, it needs to be mentioned that the southwest part of the state is semi-arid and finally merges well along with the Thar Desert.
- The government of Punjab is the governing authority of the state. Like other states in India, the government of Punjab also has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab also follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state.
- Punjab is one of the few states that has gained recognition as one of the leading states in the education system. A recent survey has brought to light the fact that Punjab has responded in an active manner to that of the ‘Sarva Shiksha Program’ – a national expedition that primarily makes an effort to drive illiteracy.
- The state of Punjab has also gained true recognition among all individuals due to the presence of forestry, tourism, agriculture, industries and minerals. Livestock is also one of the other key highlights of the state. However, the state of Punjab has scarcity as far as basic minerals and fuels are concerned.
- Punjab has a large amount of tourists visiting it. A few of the cities that experience excellent tourist transportation include Patiala, Jalandhar, Amritsar and Ludhiana.
- Punjabi language holds its origin from the ancient language of Sanskrit. It is similar to that of the many Indo-Aryan languages that hold the same origin. There are many dialects that are associated with the Punjabi language.
Capital – Jaipur
Districts – 33
Literacy – 67.06 %
- Rajasthan is located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. It is bordered on its west and northwest by Pakistan. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district.
- Western Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the parts of Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the Southwestern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile.
- The climate varies throughout Rajasthan. On average, winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F).
- Archaeological and historical evidence shows a continuous human habitation of the area dating back to 100,000 years. Between the 7th and the 11th century AD, several dynasties arose, with Rajput strength reaching its peak at the beginning of the 16th century. Emperor Akbar brought the Rajput states into the Mughal Empire.
- Rajasthan has a single-chamber legislative assembly with 200 seats. The state sends 35 members to the Indian Parliament: 10 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and 25 to the Lok Sabha (Lower House).
- Rajasthan’s economy is mainly agricultural; millet, wheat, maize (corn), and cotton are grown. Though parts of the state are extremely dry, and are covered by the Thar Desert, the total cultivable area in the state is 27,465 thousand hectares, and the sown area, 20,167 thousand hectares. Tourism is also an important part of the economy.
- The spring festival Gangaur during late March to early April and the Teej festival between early and late August is important in Rajasthan. The Teej welcomes the monsoon, when the state’s many lakes become full. The Pushkar camel and cattle fair during mid-November, the Nagaur festival during late January to early February and the Koolyat Fair at Bikaner during mid to late November are well known fairs.
- The principal language of the state is Rajasthani, comprising a group of Indo-Aryan dialects derived from Dingal, a tongue in which bards once sang of the glories of their masters.
Capital – Gangtok
Districts – 4
Literacy – 79.82 %
- In spite of being the second smallest as well as the least populated state of India, Sikkim is a heaven for nature lovers.
- Located in the Northeastern part of the country, Sikkim is surrounded by West Bengal on its south and shares international borders with Bhutan on its southeast, Nepal on its west and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China on its northeast.
- The residents of Sikkim experience two kinds of climate. The Northern part of the state experiences tundra type of climate, whereas, the Southern part observes sub-tropical climatic conditions. Because of the tundra type of climate, the Northern part of the state remains covered with snow for almost 4 months in a year, when the night temperature goes below 0° C.
- Sikkim has a significant political past that depicts several important events related to the tribal rulers, the British authority as well as inclusion of the state as a part of India. Three tribes, Mon, Naong and Chang, used to rule the state before the Lepchas invaded and overpowered them in the 17th Century.
- The economy of Sikkim depends mainly upon tourism, agriculture, few industries, and horticulture. Due to its immense natural beauty, exotic climate and rich cultural heritage, tourism has flourished in this part of the country and has become the backbone for the economy of the state.
- Ever since Sikkim has shrugged off its monarchical roots in 1975, the government of the state follows the pattern of other Indian states. There is a legislative body comprising of several ministers topped by the Chief Minister.
- Sikkim has a rich cultural heritage which is formed due to the combined tradition of Hinduism and Buddhism perfectly blended with that of the Lepchas. Since the Sikkimese follow Buddhism, their festivals are simple, less lavish yet colourful.
- As per the current demographical scenario of Sikkim, there are in total six languages that the inhabitants use to communicate with each other. Nepali happens to be the lingua franca of the state, since Nepalese form the majority of the population. The language however belongs to the Indo-Aryan family.
Capital – Chennai
Districts – 32
Literacy – 80.33 %
- Situated in the Southern part of the country, Tamil Nadu is one of the most well known and important states in India.
- Two water bodies that enclose the state on the southern and the eastern sides are the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal respectively. In fact, geometrically, Tamil Nadu touches the extreme southern tip of the Indian Peninsula.
- Originally known as the Tamilham, Tamil Nadu has an ancient history which is around 6,000 years old and is known to be the place of origin of the Dravidians.
- Historians divide the history of Tamil Nadu into three distinct divisions of ancient, middle and modern. Being one of the oldest of all civilizations, some say that the Dravidians (or tamilians) had to move to south and stay there because of the Aryans in the north.
- Tamil Nadu is quite active when it comes to politics and the state is run by the Chief Minister with the governor and other ministers. Almost all the national parties have a strong hold on the several operations of the state.
- Tamil Nadu is largely dependent on the monsoon rains, the failing of which some times leads to droughts in the country. Its climate varies from dry sub-humid to semi-arid.
- The people of Tamil Nadu lead by and large, relaxed lifestyles. Tamils have deep interest in music, dance and literature. Dance forms like Bharatanatyam and various forms of music, including Carnatic Music, have flourished here for centuries. Festivals are a daily feature in this region.
- Tamil is the official and the most widely spoken language in the state. It is the first language to have been recognised as the classical language in the country. However, few other south Indian languages are also widely used by the inhabitants like Telegu, Kannada and Malayalam.
Capital – Hyderabad
Districts – 10
Literacy – 66.46%
- Telangana became the 29th state of India on 2 June 2014. It was previously a part of the state that was earlier known as Andhra Pradesh. Before India became independent it was included in the state of Hyderabad, which comprised two divisions, namely, Warangal and Medak.
- The movement to create a separate state of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh had started long back. There had been several movements but the most important ones happened during 1969, 1972 and 2009. Over the years, the movement only gathered a lot of steam.
- The process of creating the separate state of Telangana was initiated on 9 December 2009 with a formal announcement from the Indian Government. However, as a mark of protest against this decision, MLAs and MPs from the Rayalseema and Coastal Andhra areas tendered their resignations.
- Pranab Mukherjee, the President of India, provided his consent to the decision on 1 March 2014 and the Gazette notification for the same was brought out on the same day. It was announced by the Indian Government on 4 March 2014 that the new state of Telangana would be created and hence it was formed on 2 June 2014.
- The largest cities of Telangana are Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Warangal and Karimnagar.
- Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in Telangana. Crops like cotton, mango and tobacco are locally grown in the state. Two important rivers, Krishna and Godavari also offer irrigation facilities in the state.
- The majority of the state’s population speaks Telugu. Urdu is also widely spoken in some parts of the state. The culture of the state is a combination of the customs from the Persians, embedded during the period of the Mughals and the Nizams.
- Telangana is also governed by Parliamentary system like in other states. The system is divided into three different branches. The Executive authority lies with the Council of Ministers, headed by the Chief Minister of state.
Capital – Agartala
Districts – 8
Literacy – 93.91%
- Tripura is one of the Northeastern seven sister states in India. In fact, it is the 3rd smallest state of India.
- The isolated hillocks that are scattered throughout this state are called tillas. On the other hand, the narrow alluvial valleys that are located on the western side are known as lungas.
- In terms of the population in the Northeastern part of India, Tripura holds the second spot after Assam. As per the census that was conducted in the year 2011, the total population of the state is 36,73,917.
- The state of Tripura is ruled by a democratic parliamentary system. The residents of this state are granted universal suffrage. The government of Tripura has 3 branches: judiciary, legislative and executive. The Legislative Assembly of Tripura consists of office bearers and elected members that are chosen by various members.
- The primary sector of the state consists of mining, forestry and agriculture. Secondary sector that includes manufacturing and industrial sector contributes a higher percentage to the GDP of this state. Maximum workers in the state are involved in the retail sector after agriculture.
- The diverse groups of this state have led to a multiple and composite culture. The various ethnic groups of the state are Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Reang, Jamatia, Koloi, Noatia, Chakma, Murasing, Garo, Halam, Mizo, Kuki, Munda, Mogh, Santhal, Uchoi and Oraon. The Bengali population constitutes the largest community of this state.
- The wildlife lovers will certainly want to come to this state for visiting the various wildlife destinations. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary is home to elephants, barking deer and bison. Sepahijala Sanctuary offers shelter to the migratory birds. Trishna and Rowa Wildlife sanctuary are also famous and renowned for wildlife species.
- The languages that are mainly spoken in this state are Kokborok and Bengali.
Capital – Lucknow
Districts – 75
Literacy – 67.68%
- Uttar Pradesh, literally translated as “Northern Province” in English, is a state situated in Northern India. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and Kanpur is its economic and industrial capital.
- The history of Uttar Pradesh can be traced back to the Aryan period when they arrived and started establishing settlements in the central country, which they called “Madhyadesh”.
- Uttar Pradesh was ruled by numerous kingdoms in history. It saw the advent of Lord Buddha, around the middle of the 1st millennium BC, who spread the Buddhism religion.
- The state’s prosperity was at its peak during the Mughal rule, especially during the rule of Emperor Akbar. During the Mughal rule, the region saw the construction of some magnificent monuments whose names have been engraved in the history forever.
- The major rivers of Uttar Pradesh are the Yamuna, Ganges, Ghaghara and Sarayu. Other than agricultural importance, these rivers bear a lot of spiritual significance. The weather of the state has primarily subtropical features. It experiences four seasons and has a humid temperate climate.
- Uttar Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by economy. The largest parts of the state’s economy are the agriculture and service industries. The service sector includes travel, tourism and hotel industry, real estate, financial and insurance consultancies.
- A number of texts and hymns of Vedic literature were composed in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The texts comprise the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and also the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The state is sometimes referred as the “Hindi heartland of India”. Hindi became the official language in the language Act of 1951. In 1989 an amendment to the act made Urdu as another native language of UP. The major native languages of the state are Awadhi, Braj Bhasha, Bundeli, Kannauji and Khariboli.
- Uttar Pradesh sends the biggest number of legislators to the Parliament. The state contributes 80 seats to Lok Sabha and 31 seats to Rajya Sabha in the Indian Parliament. The state has provided eight prime ministers to the country.
Capital – Dehradun
Districts – 13
Literacy – 78.825
- Uttarakhand was created by joining a number of districts from the Northwestern part of Uttar Pradesh and a portion of the Himalayan Mountain Range.
- On 9 November 2000, it became a full-fledged state of India with the formal induction of a separate state government. The state is carved out of Uttar Pradesh, which has the largest population in India.
- The name of the state was formally altered from Uttaranchal to Uttarakhand in 2007. Dehradun serves as the capital of the state and it is also the biggest city in the state. The High Court of Uttarakhand is in Nainital, another important city in the state.
- The history of Uttarakhand sings the glorious past of the territory. It has a long history of its genesis and evolution, with highlights of great emperors and empires such as the Kushanas, Kudinas, Kanishka, Samudragupta, Katuria, Palas, Chandras and Pawaras.
- Most of the areas of the state are hilly and forested. The distinctive flora and fauna of the state comprise creatures like snow leopards, bharal, tigers, leopards and uncommon shrubs and trees. The Yamuna and the Ganges, two biggest rivers of the Republic of India, have their headwaters in this state.
- The state’s economy is one of the fastest growing in recent times. Agriculture is the most significant sectors in Uttarakhand. Rice, soybeans, wheat, groundnuts, pulses, coarse cereals and oil seeds are mainly grown crops. Apples, pears, oranges, peaches, plums and litchis are widely grown and are an important part of the food industry.
- The main cash crop of the state is sugarcane.
- The two main regional languages are Garhwali and Kumaoni, but Hindi is the most commonly spoken language.
- Handicrafts and handlooms are two major industries in the state. It is also famous for being the origin of the Chipko Movement or Chipko Andolan.
Capital – Kolkatta
Districts – 20
Literacy – 77.08 %
- West Bengal is located in the Northeastern part of the country. It is bounded on its north by Bhutan.
- Although in area, West Bengal ranks as one of the smaller states of India, it is one of the largest in population. The capital is Kolkata, India’s third largest metropolitan city; other important cities and towns are Howrah, Asansol, Durgapur and Siliguri, Darjeeling, Kharagpur and Haldia.
- Bengal finds a coveted place even in pre-historic times. At the time of Alexander’s invasion, a powerful kingdom called Gangaridai ruled over Bengal. Ascendancy of the Guptas and the Mauryas had somewhat little effect on Bengal.
- Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the state’s income, and nearly three out of four persons in the state are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. The state accounts for high percentage of the country’s jute production.
- It is also a major producer of tea. Important crops of the state include potatoes, oilseeds, betelvine, tobacco, wheat, barley and maize.
- The state has a significant mineral output, including dolomite, limestone, and china clay. It has steel plants, an automobile-manufacturing plant, and numerous chemical, machinery-building, and light-engineering industries.
- The state of West Bengal is blessed with a systematic and organised judiciary that helps in the quick delivery of justice.
- The state government or the private organisations run schools in the state. The secondary schools are affiliated to West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) and the National Institute of Open School (NIOS).
- Bengali and English are the official languages of West Bengal. The National Language Hindi is also widely spoken in the state.
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