In the present General Knowledge Capsule, we will discuss 10 out of 29 states in India.
General Knowledge Capsule 2
Capital – Hyderabad
Districts – 13
Literacy – 67.4%
- Andhra Pradesh is a state in India, situated on the country’s south eastern coast.
- The northern area of Andhra Pradesh is mountainous. The highest peak Mahendragiri rises 1,500 m above the sea level.
- The climate is generally hot and humid. Annual rainfall is 125 cm. The Krishna and Godavari are the major rivers in the state.
- Centuries ago, Andhra Pradesh was a major Buddhist centre and part of Emperor Ashoka’s sprawling kingdom. Not surprisingly, traces of early Buddhist influence are still visible in several places in and around the state.
- Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh which was known as ‘Tenugu’ in the past. Urdu is the second widely spoken and hence the co-official language of Andhra
- Andhra Pradesh has a single-chamber Legislative Assembly of 175 seats. Till date, the state sent 60 members to the Indian national parliament, 11 to the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and 25 to the Lok Sabha (lower house).
- The state of Andhra Pradesh has been bifurcated and a state called Telangana has been carved out of it.
- Andhra Pradesh is rich in historical monuments and many holy temples. Tirupati in the Chittoor district houses one of the most famous temples in India.
Capital – Itanagar
Literacy – 66.95%
- Arunachal Pradesh, bordered on the south by Assam, on the west by Bhutan, on the north and northeast by China, and on the east by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) is a sparsely populated mountainous area in the extreme northeastern part of the subcontinent.
- The state’s main rivers are the Brahmaputra known in Arunachal Pradesh as the Siang, and its tributaries, the Tirap, the Lohit (Zayu Qu), the Subansiri, and the Bhareli.
- The climate of the foothills is subtropical; in the mountains, temperatures decrease rapidly with altitude. Rainfall averages between 2000 and 4000 mm (80 and 160 in) a year.
- Most of the population of Arunachal Pradesh is of Asiatic origin and show physical affinity with the people of Tibet and the Myanmar. There are dozens of tribes and sub tribes, each with a specific geographic distribution.
- Often termed as a natural wonder, the state has a number of popular tourist destinations. Some of the famous places in Arunachal Pradesh are Itanagar, Tawang, Bomdila, Bhismaknagar, and Akashiganga.
- Agriculture is the pillar of the economy of the state. Pulses, rice, wheat, sugarcane, maize, millet, oilseeds, and ginger are the main crops grown here. Since a major part of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by forests, forest products are also important base of the economy.
- Arunachal Pradesh has a single-chamber Legislative Assembly, which has 60 seats.
- The state sends three members to the Indian national parliament: one to the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and two to the Lok Sabha (lower house). Local government is based on 12 administrative districts.
Capital – Dispur
Districts – 27
Literacy – 73.18%
- Assam is one of the Seven Sister states and is encircled by the remaining Sister states – Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh
- The city is well-known for the Kaziranga National Park and the wildlife there. More importantly, the state still has managed to conserve the endangered Indian one-horned rhinoceros.
- Brahmaputra River is Assam’s antecedent river and functions as its lifeline too.
- The state is rich in a lot of resources such as petroleum, coal, limestone and natural gas. Apart from these, it is also known for many minor minerals like clay, magnetic quartzite, feldspar, sillimanites, kaolin, etc.
- Assam’s culture is widely influenced after the Ahom dynasty and Koch Kingdom established their roots in the state. One of the major contributions to cultural change is the Srimanta Shankardeva’s (Sonkordeu’s) Vaishnava Movement.
- The official language of the state is Assamese and Bodo. Bengali also holds an official status and is a spoken language
- Despite fulfilling 25% of the country’s petroleum needs, the growth rate of the state has not been able to be at the same level as India’s. Dibrugarh is country’s second richest district for revenue generation after Mumbai in Maharashtra.
- On 18th November 2013, the Chief Minister of Assam Tarun Gogoi announced that the song “O Mor Aponar Desh” (O’ my beloved land) would be officially recognised as the anthem for the state,that is, the Asom Rajyik Jatiyo Sangeet.
Capital – Patna
Districts – 38
Literacy – 63.82%
- The ancient name of Bihar was “Vihara” which means monastery. It is located in the eastern part of India.
- Bihar is the birth place of Gautam Buddha and Lord Mahavira. Therefore, Bihar’s culture today is the legacy of its great historical past.
- The flora and fauna of this state is enriched by the river Ganges that flows through Bihar before getting distributed in Bengal’s deltoid zone.
- Bihar became the epicenter of power, culture and learning under the rule of some of the greatest emperors of India, namely Samudragupta, Chandragupta Maurya, Vikramaditya and Asoka. It was also home to the two great centers of learning at that time, Vikramshila and Nalanda University.
- Several ancient monuments all over Bihar which are a living proof of the state’s 3,000 years old history. These monuments are visited by millions and millions of tourists all over the world. The Mahabodhi Temple located in this state has been declared as a heritage site by the UNESCO.
- The term Bihari is synonymous with the different languages that are spoken in Bihar and its neighbouring states. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili are the prevalent languages in Bihar.
- Bihar’s socio-economic status has seen downward trend post independence and the state is counted among backward states of the country.
- Post independence the economy of Bihar was never as good as it is today. The Nitish Kumar government made “development with justice” as their main motto which led to widespread improvement in the economy of Bihar.
Capital – Raipur
Districts – 27
Literacy – 71.04%
- On 1 November 2000, India gave birth to a new state called Chhattisgarh which was carved out of Madhya Pradesh.
- The state of Chhattisgarh was formed by integrating 16 districts of Madhya Pradesh that held together by a strong linguistic barrier.
- Dense forests that cover 44% of the state’s area mark the divergent topography of the state. Chhattisgarh claims nearly 12 percent of India’s total forest area that accounts for tremendous biodiversity as well as a rich collection of timber and variegated species of wildlife.
- Chhattisgarh Wildlife Sanctuaries has made it an important destination on the tourism map of India. Chhattisgarh has 3 National Parks and 11 Wildlife Sanctuaries gifted with their unparalleled natural beauty and diverse and rich flora and fauna. Indravati National Park is the most famous wildlife sanctuary of the state of Chhattisgarh.
- Hindi is the official language of the state. However, majority of the state’s population speak Chhattisgarhi which is a dialect of Hindi language.
- The newly formed state is richly endowed with natural resources. Its forest revenue alone accounts for 44 percent of the total state’s forest revenue. It has rich deposits of limestone, iron-ore, copper-ore, rock phosphate, manganese ore, bauxite, coal, asbestos and mica.
- Chhattisgarh is known as the Rice Bowl of India and supplies food grains to 600 rice mills. Steel and power are the major industries of the state. Chhattisgarh accounts for 15 per cent of the total steel produced in the country.
- Major tourist centres in the state are Amarkantak, Banjari Baba, Bhoramdev, Champaranya, Chitrakoot, Dudhadharimath, Indrawati National Park, Kangerghati National Park, Jagdalpur, Bastar, Danteswari Temple, and many more.
Capital – Panaji
Districts – 2
Literacy – 79.31%
- Well known for its exotic beaches, heritage architecture and places of worship, Goa is truly a travellers’ delight. Situated on the western part of the country, it is the smallest state in India in terms of area and among the least populous.
- The history of Goa is rich and diverse. In the 3rd Century BC, Goa was under the rule of the Mauryan dynasty, and after them, the state was successively ruled by Satyahanas, the Chalukyas, the Shriharas and the Kadambas
- Goa has a moderate, typical tropical monsoon climate with hot summers and chilly winters. For the rest of the year, the climate remains quite soothing. Monsoon is one the main seasons of the state with July receiving the highest rainfall.
- Goa has a small area and stands in the fourth position in the list of states with the least population. The growth rate is around 15% for the state
- Goa is considered to be the richest state in the country with a GDP per capita which is around three times of India as a whole.
- The land of Goa is rich in minerals and metal ores, hence mining is the second largest source of economy for the state. Ores like manganese, iron, bauxite, clays, silica and limestone are mined in various parts of Goa.
- oa is a multicultural state and its rich cultural heritage is found to comprise of folk songs, folk dances, soothing music, marvelous visual arts, and enchanting folk tales which has lots of variety and content.
- According to the Official Language Act of 1987, the only official language of the state was Konkani and the officially accepted script was Devanagari. Konkani, like a majority of Indian languages, hails from the Indo-Aryan family and has many dialects.
Capital – Gandhinagar
Districts – 33
Literacy – 76.64%
- Gujarat or “the land of the legends” is one of the most important states situated in the western part of the country.
- Being situated on the western coast of the peninsula of India, the coastline is the third longest in the country with a stretch of around 1300 kms
- Gujarat is known as the “jewel of the west” and with a wide range of museums, forts, sanctuaries, temples, and other places of interest, tourism in Gujarat can be a treat for the tourists.
- Gujarat happens to be the home of some of the most well known and prestigious educational institutions in the country. The state pays attention in order to improve the basic education and has launched several primary schools as well as education programs free of cost for all the kids of the state.
- Gujarat is said to be most industrialized state in the entire nation, controlling some of the largest businesses of India. Manufacturing of textiles, chemicals, electrical engineering, vegetable oils, soda ash and fertilizers are done here in the state. Being a mineral-rich state, Gujarat produces 66% of the salt required by the nation and 35% of the chemical requirement gets fulfilled from the state.
- Ankleshwar and Khambat are well known for natural gas and oil production.
- Having a wide range of cultural diversities, Gujarat is a considered to be flourishing and vibrant with a rich cultural heritage and traditions. The state is known as the land of festivals and fairs.
- The inhabitants of Gujarat belong to different castes, communities and religions. Hence, there are several languages that are widely spoke in the state apart from the main official language, Gujarati.
Capital – Chandigarh
Districts – 21
Literacy – 67.91%
- The region now known as Haryana – the Madhyama Dis (middle region) of the Later Vedic Period (c. 800-500 BC) – has been the birthplace of the Hindu religion. It was in this area that the first hymns of the Aryans were sung and the most ancient manuscripts were written.
- This state is historically known for being a part of the famous Kuru region of the country as well as the cradle to the Indus Valley Civilization. However, presently, the place is a major hub of automobile and IT (Information Technology) industries of India.
- here are many technology, research management based colleges in the state. The National Brain Research Centre in Haryana is the only institute in the country which is committed to neuroscience research and education.
- The capital city of Haryana -Chandigarh, is the capital of the state of Punjab too.
- he location of the state in the northern plains of India makes the place very hot during summer and too cold during winter. However, the different climatic conditions of this state of northern India experiences three distinctive seasons.
- Most of the land in Haryana is suitable for agriculture and 60 percent is irrigated. More than three-fourths of the population is employed in agriculture. The state is a major producer of wheat and rice.
- The state of Haryana has got a network of 44 tourist complexes to promote tourism.
- Haryanvi is the mother tongue of the people of the state. However, it is considered as a dialect and not an official language. The official languages of this state are Hindi, Punjabi and English.
Capital – Shimla
Districts – 12
Literacy – 89.5%
- Referred to as dev bhoomi or “Land of God”, Himachal Pradesh is a beautiful state in north India.
- Himachal Pradesh has a rich history because it has been inhabited by several clans of people at different ages from the beginning of civilization.
- Around 64 percent of the area is covered by forests that consist of Moist Deodar Forest, Ban Oak Forest, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, Alpine Pastures and the Rhododendron Scrub Forests.
- Being a post-Independence creation, the legislative assembly of Himachal Pradesh doesn’t have any pre-constitution. However, the unicameral legislature of the state has 68 seats with almost 14 house committee at the assembly.
- Himachal Pradesh was the summer capital of British India and hence the standard of elementary as well as higher education here is very good.
- Himachal Pradesh is one state that has transformed itself from being the most backward state to one of the most advanced states in the country. Around 50 percent of the economy of the state comes from agriculture, which is also the primary source of income as well as employment among the inhabitants.
- Apple is one of the fruits whose cultivation earns around Rs 300 crore for the state annually. Other fruits that can be cultivated here are figs, olives, hops, nuts, mushrooms, saffron and sarda melons. Ancillary Horticulture produces honey, and flowers for the state as well.
- Being a state located in the northern part of the country, Hindi is widely spoken and understood among all the inhabitants of Himachal Pradesh. Other than that, Pahari or “the hilly language”, known to be derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit, is the second most widely spoken language among the people.
Jammu & Kashmir
Capital – Srinagar
Districts – 22
Literacy – 65.57%
- Jammu and Kashmir is the northern most state of India.
- The Kashmir valley is described as a paradise on earth.
- In 1947, the state became the subject of an armed attack from Pakistan and Maharaja acceded to India on 26th October, 1947 by signing the instruments of accession. India approached the then UN in January 1949. Kashmir has been the centre of contention between India and Pakistan ever since.
- The state has limited mineral and fossil-fuel resources, and much of these are concentrated in the Jammu region. Small reserves of natural gas are found near Jammu, and bauxite and gypsum deposits occur in the Udhampur district.
- The majority of the people are engaged in subsistence agriculture of diverse kinds on terraced slopes, each crop adapted to local conditions.
- The Government is the supreme authority in Jammu and Kashmir and governs the 22 districts of the state. Like any other state, there are three branches in the state- executive, legislative and judiciary.
- The population of Jammu and Kashmir has the highest proportion of Muslims of any Indian state, about two-thirds of the total. Hindus constitute most of the remaining third, and there are small minorities of Sikhs and Buddhists.
- The main languages spoken in the state of Jammu and Kashmir are Kashmiri, Urdu, Pahari, Dogri, Balti, Gojri, Ladakhi, Shina and Pashto.
Friends this is it regarding General Knowledge Capsule 2. We will update weekly General Knowledge Capsules like this every week.If you have any suggestion or query, kindly post it in the comments section.
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