Daily Civil Services Prelims GS Paper 1 Quiz is very helpful to all IAS aspirants in evaluating their preparation level for Prelims exams. The questions given here are both conceptual and factual in nature.
Answer the question in not more than the word limit specified at the end of each question in the parentheses. Content of the answer is more important than its length.
The juvenile justice system should emphasize rehabilitation, not punishment of juvenile offenders. In this context, evaluate the juvenile justice system in India and also suggest some measures to strengthen the system. (200 words) 10 marks
The answer of this question
- The Juvenile Justice (JJ) system is based on principles of promoting, protecting and safeguarding the rights of children.
- The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 confers several rights on juveniles such as: Right to Survival; Right to Protection; Right to Development and Right to Participation.
- Juvenile Justice Boards have been set up in various districts by the State governments under the Act. Their purpose is to hold the inquiry in accordance with the provisionsof the Act and make such order in relation to the juvenile as they deem fit.
- The Act also provides for setting up of Child Welfare Committees and Children’s homes that shall take care of children in need of care and protection. Shelter homes are to be established to function as drop-in-centres for the children in the need of urgent support. The main purpose of a shelter home is restoration of and protection to a child deprived of his family. Also, the State Government or local authority may create a fund for the welfare and rehabilitation of the juvenile.
- While such policies under the Act have a good intention, in reality they lack efficient implementation. Years after its introduction, many states have failed to incorporate the policies in their legislative apparatus or dispose the necessary measures to render the law. The infrastructure of the observation homes is often sub-standard and lacks a hygienic atmosphere. The home often provides clothes and food of low quality.
- Another major problem is that the homes are mostly under-staffed and lack existence of trained counselors and psychiatrists. This in turn obstructs the proper reformation of a child based on his education, behaviour and crime committed.
- Ensure that effective interventions are available for multi-problem youth and their families before they encounter the juvenile justice system.
- Reduce reliance on incarceration and other strategies that congregate juvenile offenders together. Instead, provide a full continuum of research-based, effective juvenile diversion options in the community as alternatives to incarceration.
- Focus juvenile justice responses and interventions on individuals’ actual risk factors for criminal behavior and their need, rather than the traditional approach of focusing simply on the crime committed.
- Implement evidence-based rehabilitation and treatment practices for incarcerated youth, making sure that all youth involved in the juvenile justice system have access to evidence-based mental health and substance abuse treatment as needed, as well as to an appropriate public education. Support better and more effective family involvement by keeping incarcerated youth as close to home as possible.